Thursday, June 28, 2007

Mithila An Introduction

In Ramayan, Tulsidas gives an elaborate description of how the entire Mithila region of Bihar was decorated for the marriage of Sita with Ram. These decorations consisted chiefly of vivid murals depicting mythological personages, deities of the Hindu pantheon and the flora and fauna of the region. This art of painting, an established tradition even then, has survived to this day, passed down for centuries from every Maithili (resident of Mithila] mother to her daughter.
Today, these ceremonial decorations - popularly identified as Madhubani paintings, after the town which is a major centre of their export - can be seen on house walls in the districts of Champaran, Saharsa, Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Darbhanga, Madhubani (more profusely here than elsewhere), Samastipur, parts of the districts of Mongher, Begusarai, Bhagalpur and Purnea, which together form the region of Mithila.
The Forest of Honey:- Well marked naturally by the foothills of the Himalaya in the north, the river Ganga in the south and by the rivers Mahananda and Gandaki in the east and west respectively, Mithila spreads over 25,000 sq miles of rock-free alluvial plains. It is dotted over by thousands of pools, and crops of cotton, indigo, sugarcane, wheat, rice, lentils, maize and all the vegetables of a temperate clime are

grown here. It is this fertility which inspired people to name it Madhubani, the Forest of Honey. Today, Madhubani is one of Mithila's two chief towns (the other is Darbhanga).

The Domain of Women:-The folk paintings of Mithila are-the exclusive monopoly ot women artists. This is a communal activity and one in whicl young girls are allowed to assist. This enables them to learn early to draw and paint - skills which are put to the test when, as grown-up women, they are expected to present the kohbar- a picture used as a marriage proposal, to a man or their choice. Heavily charged with tantric symbolism in its basic design and composition, a kohbar depicts a pictorial intercourse using the lingam (phallus) and yoni (vulva) symbols. Not only can this fresco be seen on every bedroom wall in Mithila but the first kohbars in a courtship are used to wrap various gifts.

The Divine Tapestry:-Another central figure of Maithili paintings is Krishna, the eighth avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu and one of the most popular gods in India. The ecstatic circle in which he leads the gopis or his cowherd-lovers is interpreted as the wheel of life, of appearances revolving eternally. If the Shiva lingam represents mystic ecstasy, and Krishna the passionate repetition of the act of love, Rama - the seventh avatar oi Vishnu - is archetypal together with his wife Sita (an incarnation of Vishnu's wife, goddess Lakshmi), of marital devotion.

Reflecting Nature's Fecundity:-A scale is established to convey vastness by juxtaposing figures of human beings, animals and birds - with towering forms. The smallest of gaps is then filled with birds, leaves, flowers or ceremonial objects to show the fecundity of nature. Viewed as a whole, the harmony reflected in the utilization of space and in the picturisation, conveys the artist's understanding of peaceful co-existence of man and bird and beast.

Living in Harmony:-This understanding of the importance of living in harmony was, in the past, extended even to the practice of preparing colours from plant extract. Three cardinal rules governed this : no one was to destroy another's garden, no money was to be spent on the collection of materials, and no colours were to be made out of edible plants. The artists used the juice of locally available creepers and flowers : henna leaves, the palash flower, bougainvillaea and the sap of the neem tree, to obtain a range of colours. For black,they ingeniously removed the soot collected on the underside of their earthen cooking vessels and fixed it by using the viscous substance surrounding the seed of the be I fruit.

The Artist's Tools:-Nowadays, paints are generally bought in the bazaars rather than prepared indigenously. Colours are available in powdered form, which are then mixed with goat's milk. For black, the women rely on burnt straw and for white, on powdered rice diluted with water. The colours are usually deep red, green, blue, black, light yellow, pink, and lemon. Two kinds of locally made brushes are used once the paints -e ready. A small bamboo-twig with a slightly frayed end is sed for outlines and tiny details. The filling in of space is .one with the aid of a pihua, made from tying a small piece of cloth to a twig. The outline is drawn in a single flow of the brush without preliminary sketching.

Humble Canvases:-Although to the outside world Maithili paintings are available on paper, the usual base on which the women paint are the mud-walls of their dwellings. However, the use of paper (as gift wrapping) as a canvas was known long before these paintings acquired saleability. It is also used to preserve the more elaborate or less frequently drawn pictures on a smaller-scale, which then serve aide-memoires.

Tradition and The Individual:-I- the Mithila murals convey a sense of timelessness, it is t'.ue to the lack of significant variation in style from p^neration to generation. Though new schools are born with e ich generation, the similarities in the use of colour, form aid iconography appear like strong currents of inherited knowledge. Many Maithili women have received recognition fur being mistresses of their art and yet it is not a unique n dividual sensibility that speaks through their artistic creations. Visible in their offerings is an anonymous creative mind with millennia of traditional knowledge.

Maithili Language Introduction- Maithli is of the family of Indo-Aryan languages. It is spoken in the Mithila region. The language script is Devnagri. In 2002-03 Maithili is declared independent language. A movement to give the language official status through inclusion in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution so that it may be used in education, government, and other official contexts, resulted in Maithili being given official status in 2003.

Maithili was traditionally written in the Devnagri script . It was also written in the Kaithi, Bengali and some other Scripts script, but the Devanagari script is the script most commonly used today for Maithili.

Aproximatly 5.5 crore, or 5.5 million, people spoken Maithili. The most famous literary figure in Maithili is the poet Vidyapati And Kalidas. Maithili is very old language. The king of Darbhanga Kameswar singh also accepts maithili as his official language. In 2003 A.B.Bajpayee Government declared maithili as an independent language.

Political History Of Mithila

Border Of Mithila:- In ancient History of India/Nepal Mithila is state of King Janaka. The old name of Mithila is "Tirhut". Mithila is a part of both Nepal And India. Border of Mithila is In east Koshi River("Koshki") In west Shagrami River("Narayani, Gandki or SadaNira) In North Himalaya Mountain In South Ganga River.

The Land Of Mithila And Videh King Janaka:- The name of Mithila is come from Valmiki Ramayana. The King Janak was oldest king of Mithila. Her daughter Goddess Sita is wife of God Ram. Ram Is Son of Ajoydhya the King Dasrath. The other kings of Videh Time is King Bhanumath, Satghumanya, Suchi, Urjnama, Satdhwya, Kriti, Anjan, Arisnami, Srutayu, Supasyu, Suryasu, Srinjay, Sourmabi, Anena, Bhimrath, Satyarath, Upangu, Upgupt, Swagat, Snanand, Subrachya, Supraswa, Subhasn, Suchurut, Susurath, Jay, Vijay, Critu, Suny, Vith Habya, Dwati, Bahulaswa, Kriti Tirtiya. (From Mithila ka Ithihass).From VishnuPuran King Kriti Tirtiya Is Last King of Videh time. King Kriti is very inosant king. In Videh Time Period Raja Janak Is Very well king and very famous Rishi (from Narad Puran).

Relasionship Between Videh Kind And Her Neighbors :- Ancient Videh Kings are very well for relation ship between Neighbors. Her Neighbors are Panchal, Kashi, and Kuru. Before Mahabharata Mithila and Pnachal King Relationship is well after Mahabharata It is going Bad and Weak. When Yudhistir is king of Hastinapur Mithila King Sirdhwya is losses war. In Mahabharat Mithila King Chamedhuruti Is fight with Pandavas against Kauravas. In Thease Times Sri Krishna visit Mithila.

After Mahabharata Brahamdatt was made the king of Mithila. AjatSatru was the king of Magadh after Mahabharata and he was famous for his Philosphy. After Mahabharata he meet Brahamdatt and make relationship with Mithila.

Economical History Of Mithila
In the videh period Mithila's Business and industry are increases. This time a new society was borne called baniya.

They done business from see route. He make business relationship with Kashi, Bangal, e.t.c . In this period many Business man come from out of Mithila like "Marvari". Business have her own Corporation for maintain business in this corporation the famous or senior business man was called leader of corporation. In ancient time this type of corporation in make Mithila's business is well. In this period money is called "Nisk" or "HiranPind". it was made from Gold. Another type of money is called "PAAD" and it was made from Silver. In this period Mithila's People know about metal or gold.

State Vaishali Period:- In this period other society also joined business. Vaishali is very wealthy and rich state so business is more profitable in this period. In this time included MasaLa, Palm, Sweat and other thing for business.

King Janak

The King Janak was known as "Rajeshree" Janak for his quality of both King and that of a Rishi. It is Belive that he even plough his paddy field, and in this process he got Sita also Known as "Jankai". Janaka also arranged a test of strenth in which suitors vying for his dauther hand in marrage would have to sring the great bow of lord Shiva (Horo Dhanus). Lord Rama's Passed this test of strenth' and marry with Sita.Janaka was also well verses of Shastra and Vedas as any rishi. In Bhagawat Gita Sri Krishna Also Give Him to A name Karma Yogi ( Karm Yougi Means man who do her works properly and with Honesty).

Maha Kavi Kalidas

One of the greatest poets and dramatists in Sanskrit. His chronicle of the kings of the Raghu clan ('Raghuvamsha'), the great play 'Shakuntala' and other works depict, through many great characters, the highest ideals of life as seen by the ancientpeople of Bharat.

There are hundreds of languages in the world. However, great and classical literature which people in all countries need to read is found only in a few languages. One such great language is Sanskrit. It is one of the oldest languages. It is the mother of several Indianlanguages such as Hindi, Bengali and Marathi in the North. Kannada, Telugu and other languages in the South have also been nourished by it.

It needs the genius of poets who create literary epics and great thinkers for a language to achieve world-renown. Sanskrit is eminently lucky in this respect. Sages' celebration of the wonders of nature, the sky, the stars, mountains and rivers, the sun, the moon, the clouds, fire ('Agni') and their devout offering of prayers to the Universal Power are all found in the Vedic classics which/are in Sanskrit. Puranas and historical epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata vividly describe the battle between the good and the evil. They also portray the virtues like devotion to truth, a sense of sacrifice, heroism, cultured living, etc. In Sanskrit there are also beautiful stories of birds and animals like Panchatantra; stories extolling good and basic qualities of wisdom and intelligence. Sanskrit can also justly boast of a rich treasure house of plays, poems and many scientific and philosophical treatises.

A poet who has made a distinct and glorious contribution to this sumptuous Sanskrit literature is Kalidasa. He has pictured in his works the beauty in life and pondered upon how we can give pleasure to others by generous and graceful behavior.His portrayals are vivid and heart- warming; his wordpower is unique. In a few words he is capable of bringing out the entire meaning intended. His writings touchingly show up a noble, meaningful mode of life for the people to pursue. His works are an intellectual treat to thinkers and common readers alike.

Chanakya

Chanakya was adviser and prime minister to the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta (c. 340-293 BC), and architect of his rise to power. Kautilya and Vishnugupta, the names by which the political treatise Arthaśhāstra identifies its author, are traditionally identified with Chānakya. Some scholars consider Chanakya to be "the pioneer economist of the world and the "the Indian Machiavelli".Chankya was a professor at Taxila University and is widely believed to be responsible for the first Indian empire.

He is generally called Chanakya but, in his capacity as author of the Artha
śhāstra, is generally referred to as Kautilya. The Arthaśhāstra identifies its author by the name Kautilya, except for one verse which refers to him by the name Vishnugupta. One of the earliest Sanskrit literature to explicitly identify Chanakya with Vishnugupta was Vishnu Sarma's Panchatantra in the 3rd century BC.

K.C. Ojha puts forward the view that the traditional identification of Vi
ṣṇugupta with Kauilya was caused by a confusion of editor and originator and suggests that Vishnugupta was a redactor of the original work of Kauilya. Thomas Burrow goes even further and suggests that Chanakya and Kautilya may have been two different people.

Legend:- The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty.
Silver punch mark coin of the Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE.Thomas R. Trautmann lists the following elements as common to different forms of the Chanakya legend:

Works
Three books are attributed to Chanakya: Arthashastra, Nitishastra and Chanakya Niti. The Arthashastra discusses monetary and fiscal policies, welfare, international relations, and war strategies in detail. Many of his nitis or policies have been compiled under the book title Chanakya Niti. Nitishastra is a treatise on the ideal way of life, and shows Chanakya's in depth study of the Indian way of life.

Chanakya is born with a complete set of teeth, a sign that he would become king, which is inappropriate for a Brahmin like Chanakya. Chanakya's teeth are therefore broken and it is prophesied that he will rule through another.
The Nanda King throws Chanakya out of his court, prompting Chanakya to swear revenge.
Chanakya searches for one worthy for him to rule through. Chanakya encounters a young Chandragupta Maurya who is a born leader even as a child.
Chanakya's initial attempt to overthrow Nanda fails, whereupon he comes across a mother scolding her child for burning himself by eating from the middle of a bun or bowl of porridge rather than the cooler edge. Chanakya realizes his initial strategic error and, instead of attacking the heart of Nanda territory, slowly chips away at its edges.
Chanakya betrays his ally the mountain king Parvata.
Chanakya enlists the services of a fanatical weaver to rid the kingdom of rebels.
Chanakya adds poison to the food eaten by Chandragupta, now king, in order to make him immune. Unaware, Chandragupta feeds some of his food to his queen, who is in her ninth month of pregnancy. In order to save the heir to the throne, Chanakya cuts the queen open and extracts the foetus who is named Bindus
āra because he was touched by a drop (bindu) of blood or of poison.
Ch
ānakya's political rivalry with Subandhu leads to his death.

Mandan Mishra & Bharti

When Shankracharya arrived at Prayag, he met Kumarilbhatt who was in his dying moments. Kumarilbhatt advised him to go to Mahishmati in the district of Saharsa in Bihar and to have a debate with Mandan Mishra, a renowned scholar. In the debate, the wife of Mandan Mishra, Bharati acted as the mediator. The debate between Shankar and Mandan Mishra continued for many days and Mandan Mishra was finally defeated.

Bharati then challenged Shankar for a debate saying that the victory was not complete as she, as the better half of Mandan Mishra, had not been defeated. Shankar accepted her challenge and the religious debate began. But when Bharati changed her topic to Kamashastra (sexual science), Shankar demanded some time to answer those questions which Bharati accepted.

Shankaracharya left that place. On the way he saw a dead body of a king being carried to the cremation ground for the performance of the last rites. By his yogic powers, Shankaracharya translocated his soul in the body of the king and preserved his own body keeping it safely somewhere.

King Virat

King Virat the father of Uttra and father inlaw of Abhimanyu . Abhimanyu. was son of Arjun and is known for his bravery in the battle of Kurushetra. Uttra was born in Village Uttra near benipatti.

Gautam Muni

Gautam Muni the famous Rishi of all time lived in Mithilanchal . One famous story associated with him is that when he saw his wife Ahilya with Debraj Indra he became very angry and curse his wife to be a stone. The place is known as Ahilya Sthan which is now in Kamtaul Darbhanga.

Vidyapati

Vidyapati was one of the famous poet in Mithalanchal. His bhakti songs & poems are even now been sang with complete devotion . One famous story is associated with him, that lord Siva was very satisfied with his devotion & blessed him that he will stay with him but to hide his identity stayed as his servant. He is known as "Kabi-Kokil" in Mithalanchal.

Goddess Sita

Sita wife of lord Ramachandra was born at Janakpur in Mithalanchal . The war between Ram & Ravana was fought due to her abduction. One interesting story associates with her birth that King Janak found her during plowing of a paddy field which is said to be Sithamathi in Bihar.

Shara Sinha

Shara Sinha is famous folk singer of Mithilanchal. Her songs are largely sang and loved by The people of Mithilanchal and all over Bihar and Nepal. One of her famos song is "jay Jay Bhairav Asur Vayabhinih" is been sang every where in Mithilanchal.

Udit Narayan jha

Udit Narayan jha is popularly Known as Udit Narayan. He is a living legend for Mithilanchal. He is famous for his hundreds of Hit Hindi, Bhojpuri and Maithili songs. He is praised for playback singing in Hindi Cinema. He is a proud Maithil and a proud for Mithilanchal.Udit Narayan is a well-established playback singer in the Hindi-language Bollywood film industry. Born in a village called Bharadah in Saptary, Nepal, Udit Narayan began his career by singing Maithili and Nepali folk songs for Radio Nepal in the early 1970s. In 1978, he moved to Mumbai on a music scholarship. In Mumbai he trained in Indian classical music for six years at the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.

He got his first break in 1980, when noted music director (composer) Rajesh Roshan asked him to do a song for the Hindi movie Unees Bees. But the actual success story of his career began in 1988 with the superhit Bollywood movie Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak, fetching him a Filmfare Award, the Bollywood equivalent of the Oscar. The film also happened to bring actor Aamir Khan, actress Juhi Chawla, and singer Alka Yagnik to stardom.


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